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According to the World Bank, the Development Communication is the "integration of strategic communication in development projects" based on a clear understanding of indigenous realities. Bessette defined development communication as a "planned and systematic application of communication resources, channels, approaches and strategies to support the goals of socio-economic, political and cultural development". Who are development communicators? What qualities do they possess?
Nora C. Quebral  gave a succinct characterization:. According to Felstehausen , conventional theoretical assumptions are drawn from development communications research and are challenged on the grounds that as theoretical concepts they are inadequate guides to the selection of data and the resolution of development problems. The first conceptual fallacy results from the regular practice of choosing operational examples and analogies from the experiences of developed rather than underdeveloped countries.
This is especially evident in terms of a bias favoring technology especially U. The second fallacy results from the use of inappropriate and frequently untested theoretical models within communication research causing a distorted view of the role of communication in relation to social and behavioral systems. The first issue is argued by presenting a review of empirical studies which show that communication processes and the adoption of new technology does not go on apart from the factors which define the behavior of the social, economic and political system.
Correlational analyses are of little value in explaining communication processes, or in establishing their role in relation to development. The second issue is addressed by suggesting that communication is to be viewed as part of a social interaction theory in which communication is treated as a process which unveils and transforms reality in the exchange of information among persons.
Communication can be defined as a process of accumulating and integrating intelligence. This reformulation shifts the research focus from questions of how communication functions to change persons senders or receivers , to how it functions to change and transform ideas.
Concepts, ideas, interests and positions can then be used as the primary units of analysis. The practice of development communication began in the s, but widespread application came about after World War II.
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The advent of communication sciences in the s included recognition of the field as an academic discipline, led by Daniel Lerner , Wilbur Schramm and Everett Rogers. Both Childers and Quebral stressed that DC includes all means of communication, ranging from mass media to person to person.
According to Quebral , the most important feature of Philippines-style development communications is that the government is the "chief designer and administrator of the master development plan wherein, development communication, in this system then is purposive, persuasive, goal-directed, audience-oriented, and interventionist by nature". Various schools of development communication arose in response to challenges and opportunities in individual countries.
Manyozo broke the field into six schools. The "Bretton Woods" school was originally dominant in international literature. While not per se an academic school, the Church has been conducting "development communication" for many decades.
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The Catholic Church's social teachings and moral norms parallel those of social development. Rerum novarum On the New Things , for example, an encyclical written in by Pope Leo XIII critiqued social ills and promoted "the Catholic doctrine on work, the right to property, the principle of collaboration instead of class struggle as the fundamental means for social change, the rights of the weak, the dignity of the poor and the obligations of the rich, the perfecting of justice through charity, on the right to form professional associations"  In , Pope John XXIII , writing on the topic "Christianity and Social Progress", produced an encyclical entitled Mater et magistra Mother and Teacher , which taught that the "Church is called in truth, justice and love to cooperate in building with all men and women an authentic communion.
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In this way, economic growth will not be limited to satisfying men's needs, but it will also promote their dignity". In it the Pope underscored the importance of justice, peace, and development by declaring that "development is the new name of peace". Addressing development workers, he said, "genuine progress does not consist in wealth sought for personal comfort or for its own sake; rather it consists in an economic order designed for the welfare of the human person, where the daily bread that each man receives reflects the glow of brotherly love and the helping hand of God".
Pope John VI wrote that the Church's very nature was missionary Lumen gentium — Light of the Nations , and its deepest identity Evangelii nuntiandi — Sharing the Gospel  embracing the entire life of the Church Redemptoris missio — Mission of the Redeemer. The importance of engagement for social transformation and development is also asserted in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, which states that, "as far as possible citizens should take an active part in public life; the manner of this participation may vary from one country or culture to another Moreover, Gaudium et spes Joy and Hope , commonly referred to as the Magna Carta of the Catholic Church's teaching on human dignity, states, "to satisfy the demands of justice and equity, strenuous efforts must be made, without disregarding the rights of persons or the natural qualities of each country, to remove as quickly as possible the immense economic inequalities which now exist and in many cases are growing and which are connected with individual and social discrimination".
The involvement of many organizations and individual members of the Catholic Church in highlighting the plight of the needy and reaching out to the disadvantaged through works in education, health, livelihood projects, among others, serves as a concrete example of a Church that communicates a transformative and life-changing message.
The Church advocates "establishing new relationships in human society, under the mastery and guidance of truth, justice, charity and freedom—relations between individual citizens, between citizens and their respective States, between States, and finally between individuals, families, intermediate associations and States on the one hand, and the world community on the other".
The Bretton Woods school of development communication paralleled the economic strategies outlined in the Marshall Plan , the Bretton Woods system and of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Due to his pioneering influence, Rogers was referred to as "one of the founding fathers of development communication. This approach to development communication was criticized by Latin American researchers such as Luis Ramiro Beltan and Alfonso Gumucio Dagron, because it emphasized problems in the developing nation rather than its unequal relation with developed countries.
They claimed that it proposed industrial capitalism as a universal solution and that many projects failed to address obstacles such as lack of access to land, agricultural credits, and fair market prices. Failed projects in the s led to revisions. The Latin American school of development communication predates the Bretton Woods school, emerging in the s with the efforts of Colombia's Radio Sutatenza and Bolivia's Radios Mineras.
They pioneered participatory and educational approaches to empowering the marginalised. In effect, they served as the earliest models for participatory broadcasting efforts around the world. In the s Paolo Freire 's theories of critical pedagogy and Miguel Sabido's enter-educate method became important elements of the Latin American development communication school. In the s, technological advances facilitated social change and development: new media outlets emerged, cable TV reached more regions, and the growth of local communication firms paralleled the growth of major media corporations.
Organized development communication in India began with rural radio broadcasts in the s. Broadcasts adopted indigenous languages to reach larger audiences. Organized efforts in India started with community development projects in the s. The government, guided by socialist ideals and politicians, started many development programs. Field publicity was employed for person-to-person communication.
The radio played an important role in reaching the masses because literacy was low. Educational institutions — especially agricultural universities, through their extension networks — and international organizations under the United Nations umbrella experimented with development communication. Non-governmental organizations NGOs relied on close inter-personal relations among communicators. Communication from the government was more generic and unidirectional. So-called Public Information Campaigns were government-sponsored public fairs in remote areas that presented entertainment along with information on social and developmental schemes.
Villagers engaged in competitions to attract attendees. Public and private organizations sponsored stalls in the main exhibition area. Some state governments employed this model. Community radio was used in rural India. NGOs and educational institutions created local stations to broadcast information, advisories and messages on development. Local participation was encouraged. Community radio provided a platform for villagers to publicize local issues, offering the potential to elicit action from local officials.
The widespread adoption of mobile telephony in India created new channels for reaching the masses. The African school of development communication sprang from the continent's post-colonial and communist movements in the late s and early s. Anglophone Africa employed radio and theatre for community education, adult literacy, health and agricultural education Kamlongera, , Mlama, In , the FAO project "Communication for Development in Southern Africa" was a pioneer in supporting and enhancing development projects and programs through the use of participatory communication.
The FAO project, placed under SADC, developed an innovative methodology known as Participatory Rural Communication Appraisal PRCA , which combined participatory tools and techniques with a strong communication focus needed to enhance projects results and sustainability. The radio maintained a strong presence in research and practice into the 21st century. Radio was especially important in rural areas, as the work of the non-governmental organization Farm Radio International and its members across sub-Saharan Africa demonstrated.
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Knowledge exchange between development partners such as agricultural scientists and farmers were mediated through rural radio Hambly Odame, In her paper, Quebral argued that development communication had become a science, requiring the tasks associated with communicating development-oriented issues be based on scientific inquiry. At the time the field was limited to agricultural and rural development. At the time the term 'development support communication' was used in UNDP programmes under Erskine Childers, with coauthor and wife, Malicca Vajrathron.
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In , in the Institute of Development Communication's faculty papers series, Alexander Flor proposed expanding the definition of development communication to include the perspective of cybernetics and general systems theory :. If information counters entropy and societal breakdown is a type of entropy, then there must be a specific type of information that counters societal entropy. The exchange of such information — be it at the individual, group, or societal level — is called development communication. The Center's vision is to be a leading centre of excellence in development training, communication and consultancy services.
As an extension arm of Kasetsart University its international service mission includes building and maintaining quality services to support organizations in their efforts for sustainable development in social and economic sectors.