Auto da Alma (Biblioteca Essencial da Literatura Portuguesa Livro 4) (Portuguese Edition)
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This relationship is complex since both the negotiation of national identity and national policy take place in international contexts, between rhetorically sovereign but, in reality, highly stratified nation-states and literatures. The balance between the national and the individual as well as the political and the cultural is in constant negotiation.
By investigating the development of the writer-diplomat tradition in Brazil during the nineteenth century, the next chapter will reveal the importance of diplomacy in facilitating literary dialogues across borders in the construction of a national identity. The chapter begins with a brief discussion of the founding of the Academia Brasileira de Letras, taking place in the latter part of that century From the vantage point of the ABL, the study then retrospectively investigates the overarching political and cultural factors that led to the appearance of significant numbers of writer-diplomats in nineteenth-century Brazil.
The writings of Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen, one of the most prominent writer-diplomats of the period, will also be considered in connection with the IHGB. Diplomacy, in this sense, has a profound historical impact on the orientation of Brazilian literary expression. The literary act in Brazil represents a binding of Brazil in textual accord with other nations, becoming analogous in many ways with the negotiations of diplomatic treaties. By stressing the international facets of literature and politics in the nineteenth century, this study not only serves as a useful tool to understand the dialectics of identity formation among the elite, but also briefly points to the elision of other peripheral discourses.
The ABL envisioned itself as a society capable of classifying the parameters by which Brazilian literature and language could accompany political and economic developments. Thus, its founders proposed that, although the ABL would be a function of the national project, it would not be subject to coeval political changes.
Or rather, to borrow from Homi K. The ABL was in many ways formed at the crossroads of literature and diplomacy. From the beginning, the ABL counted among its membership many diplomats. Taunay, founder of the thirteenth chair, chose Francisco Otaviano Alcindo Guanabara chose, for the nineteenth chair, Joaquim Caetano da Silva The literary society also shared a similar focus with Brazilian diplomacy. This interplay between Brazil and Europe was a recurring theme of intellectual and political activity throughout the nineteenth century.
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The founding of the ABL represents the consolidation of the relationship between literature and diplomacy, developed throughout the nineteenth century while also pointing to what would be its continued relevance in the twentieth century. Yet, whereas in the s most diplomats in the ABL were principally focused on the production of history, in the twentieth century, the most renowned members were writers of poetry and prose.
Similarly, other diplomats in the twentieth century, who did not necessarily produce creative works, but were either critics, journalists, philologists or historians, also belonged to the ABL. The large number of writers that became diplomats during the nineteenth century has led some historians such as Ubiratan Machado to contemplate the phenomenon.
While commenting on the frequency in which writers sought appointments as public servants in politics and government, U. Machado and Malatian. First, diplomats were allowed and even encouraged while abroad to devote significant amounts of time to intellectual production focused on Brazil. In the words of U. The attraction of diplomacy for writers was a phenomenon that began in Brazil with independence and underwent a process of institutionalization throughout the 39 nineteenth century, creating both a strong political official and cultural informal connection to develop between the two fields.
The ideals of Romanticism, elevating the individual and the nation above all else, were important in the development of the empathy between literature and diplomacy. The preponderant themes of nineteenth century Brazilian literature stemmed from the ideals of Romanticism which favored just such a heroic concept of literature. As the Latin American colonies followed in the wake of U. Taking center stage in Romantic literature, the individual expresses the political and cultural processes associated with the formation of national identity.
The protagonists and poetic voices of Romantic works often take on attitudes and actions which play a key role in defining an individual autonomy paralleling the rise of national autonomy. Thus, the individual takes center stage in literature, formulating the parameters by which the political and cultural processes associated with a distinctly Brazilian national identity may be defined through literature and diplomacy.
Diplomats, like writers, serve as intermediary agents between Brazil, 42 its symbols, and society.
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They also function as points of contact by which the nation might articulate its differences in relation to others. Since this process is founded in the philosophies and revolutionary histories of the European Enlightenment, Brazil must inevitably develop its own nationality as the socio-political offspring of Europe. The imperial apparatus, even though independent from Portugal, was focused on assuring the survival of the new 43 monarchy in the image of the old one.
Empire in transition
In this period after independence, Dom Pedro II began to send diplomats to Europe with the official mandate to cull information from archives to be used in writing national history. History, as the established program of the Empire, was needed to help define and project Brazil not as a divided confederation of provinces, but as a unified imperial entity, to reinforce the power of the emperor Wehling One example of the historiographic role that diplomacy played in validating the new Empire is the work of Francisco Adolfo de Varnhagen , 44 patron of the thirty ninth chair in the ABL.
This was the historical position needed by Dom Pedro II to concretize his political authority. Thus, after independence, Brazilian literature moved simultaneously towards and away from its European roots. It became, as it were, nationalized. European influence however continued to exert tremendous influence. Dom Pedro II desired to stress this continued empathy with Portugal and Europe when he offered his support to the IHGB, becoming protector of the institution and presiding in no less than five hundred and six sessions U. Machado Geography also played a role in the growth of the relationship between literature and diplomacy.
Rio was both the political and cultural epicenter of Brazil throughout the nineteenth century. This was an important coincidence that facilitated, for many writers, the possibility of a diplomatic career. And since, in the words of U. A diplomatic career offered the chance to gain professional prestige while continuing to write.
Auto da Alma (Biblioteca Essencial da Literatura Portuguesa Livro 4) (Portuguese Edition)
Through their travels, especially in Europe, writer-diplomats gained direct access to cultural and philosophical ideals that guided literary production in Brazil. Domingo Borges de Barros was an important precursor to Brazilian Romanticism and possibly the first writer-diplomat of an independent Brazil. He was born in Bahia and later educated at Coimbra.
It is outside national historical time and outside native space; for that reason it is lacunal and eurocentric. In short, its location is "absence," determined by a movement of tropism. Yet, conversely, Brazil was also indebted to him for instigating the trend of fatalistically imitating everything that emanated from France, in terms of literature and art Cerqueira par. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Manuel de Oliveira Lima still emphasized the importance of constant dialogue with the old metropolis in order for Brazil to successfully develop as a nation.
For Oliveira Lima, this 52 national character is overtly connected to Portugal. Nuestra Grecia es preferible a la Grecia que no es nuestra. Both prove problematic. These border negotiations that form an integral part of Brazilian diplomatic history form the basis of a metaphor that echoes in the literary realm.
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Just as these treaties negotiated the terms by which Brazilian geography would be defined in relation to other nations, Brazilian writerdiplomats coordinated a Brazilian identity in relation to other literatures and cultures. Portugal sought to capitalize on the efforts of bandeirantes and others who had, over the centuries, extended Brazilian colonization west of the Tordesilhas line s. The new borders still had to be legally recognized, and this was a matter taken up mainly with Spain.
In the Treaty of Madrid, which was signed by both the Spanish and the Portuguese crowns, the principle of uti possidentis was accepted, to the benefit of the Portuguese.
Retemperam-lhe o vigor, purificam-lhe a substancia. Vereis se vos engano, se existe nada mais belo do que aquela terra de encantos. It is a paradise waiting to be discovered. Yet, of all the images evoked in this mythical description of Brazil, there is one crucial image that is most notably absent. The literary shape of Brazil, as is its geopolitical counterpart, is partly the result of the expansionist and diplomatic work of writer-diplomats. This search for a national self is not only an inward journey, but also a continual negotiation of literary, political and cultural borders with other nations.
In the twentieth century and as the international system evolved, Brazil began to take note also of the necessity for dialogue not just with Europe but also with its hemispheric neighbors. This reorganization is linked with a growing collective Latin American identity, as the region faced postwar domination by its hegemonic neighbor to the north, the United States of America.
As some monarchies were subsumed and others subverted, emerging nation-states became the new, yet no less sacred and personified entities of politico-cultural organization. The nation-state model was adopted throughout South America in the nineteenth century with special ramifications for Brazil.
Specifically, I will discuss the importance of the theory of divine right and its function within the absolute monarchies of Europe. Then, we will look at how this theory was later employed in constructing the rubric of national identity. After the Protestant Reformation , many dynasties throughout Europe began to base their sovereign authority on divine right.
By evoking divine right, King James I suggested an otherworldly power to his rule, not reliant upon clerical or plebian support. Portugal had since the twelfth century based its sovereignty on divine will. According to legend, Christ appeared to Afonso Henrique to help him defeat the Moors at the Battle of Ourique in ; a battle which concretized Portuguese proclaimed in In the words of Charles R. O rei era na verdade o senhor de tudo— tudo hauria dele a legitimidade para existir In the thirteenth century, the sovereignty of the Portuguese crown was further established by the dynasty of Dom Afonso II The system to develop in Portugal as a result was called the padroado real.
Likewise, the sovereignty of the Portuguese crown was a powerful tool in developing a cultural defense against impending political dilemmas, especially in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Some day he would return to earth at the head of his armies and initiate the millennium. As the Enlightenment took shape, a new anthropocentric vision of government formed, questioning the validity of the theory of divine right and the infallible god-like king.
Beginning with the English Revolution , and culminating with the French Revolution , the long established hierarchies between kings and subjects founded on divine right was being restructured. One of the most important philosophers to express this transformation taking place was the Englishman John Locke For this reason a nation, according to Enlightenment philosophy, is analogous to the individual: both independent actors no 67 longer subject to any authority above them and both placed in a position of reciprocal equality with others.
Despite the incompatibilities of Enlightenment philosophy with the theory of divine right, a strong empathy between monarchies and emerging nation-states endured throughout Europe. Through writing and diplomacy in Brazil, the ex-colony restructures its own identity in relation to the metropolis, asserting its independence. The travels of Brazilian writerdiplomats function as a legitimizing mechanism of a Latin American elite society that had long existed on the periphery of European culture.
Table of contents
The unique position of Brazilian writerdiplomats has traditionally been to perform both functions; that of traveler and that of potentate. Yet, they embodied in their work a national center. Yet, unlike that of Bakthin, this movement is not only a theoretical one towards encountering an identity, but it also embodies the physical travels of diplomats. By centripetal and centrifugal motions, writer-diplomats disrupted the politico-cultural borders that had relegated their peripheral literary discourses to mimesis.
Through sermons and letters now classics within the canon of Brazilian as well as Portuguese literature, Vieira took radical stances on issues such as the plight of indigenous people and of the slaves while writing within political and religious channels connected to the imperial apparatus. Just as Vieira, as a Jesuit priest and diplomat, constructed a collective sacred identity for the Portuguese, Brazilian writer-diplomats become paradigmatic representatives of a new class of national representatives, sharing a similar function in identity formation.
As both a priest, and diplomat, Vieira symbolizes the conflux of important politico-cultural pillars such as monarchy and religion in an effort to project a unified Portuguese identity.